Saddam’s army, seeing that Bush had declared war over with Saddam still in place and his forces largely intact, rallied to Saddam. 2 The Impact of the Persian Wars on Classical Greece1 3 Xerxes’ Homer; 4 The View from Eleusis Demeter in the Persian Wars 5 Plato and the Persian Wars; 6 The Persian Wars in Fourth-Century Oratory and Historiography; 7 Images of the Persian Wars in Rome; 8 De Malignitate Plutarchi Plutarch, Herodotus, and the Persian Wars The assembley (Govt.) But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The effects of Persian Gulf War caused several pains to people. The soldiers who participated in the Gulf War displayed some unique characteristics, which are commonly referred to as “Gulf War illness” or “Gulf War Syndrome”. Wars often cause severe environmental and human health effects. Causes and Effects of the Persian Wars Causes The Ionians Revolted In 499 BC, With the encouragement and help of Athens. Map of the Athenian Empire c. 431 BCE. The Battles of the Persian War: Effects of the Persian War. Just why Greece was coveted by Persia is unclear. Battle of Marathon (September 490 BCE), in the Greco-Persian Wars, decisive battle in which the Athenians repulsed the first Persian invasion of Greece. The major economic impact of the Gulf War was perhaps on cleaning up the oil slicks, which cost a whopping $700 million to clean up. The Persian War showed the superiority of the hoplite phalanx over the Persian type of fighting. According to Thucydides, the siege of Thasos marked the transformation of the League from an alliance into a hegemony. Thasos allied with Persia and petitioned Sparta for assistance, but Sparta was unable to help because it was facing the largest helot revolution in its history. Cultural and ethnic differences were driving the Greek world apart. In a reversal of the alliances of the end of the Peloponnesian War 87, the Persian king initially allied with Athens and the other Greek city-states 88 against Sparta in the so-called Corinthian War 89, which lasted from 395 to 386 B.C. Environment. Iraq felt that Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were overproducing oil and due to this, oil prices were not able to stabilize at a high price. The Persian Gulf War, often referred to as Operation Desert Storm, was perhaps one of the most successful war campaigns in the history of warfare. The winner was Greece, a huge upset to the Persians. After the wars ended, Athens converted the anti-Persian Delian League into an empire of its own. It owed a lot of money to various countries, including Kuwait. They suffered from depression, fatigue, and … From 490 to 479 BCE, the Persian Empire and the Greeks faced off in two wars that decided the history of Greece and had a massive impact on the development of Western civilization. Even after so many years, the countries that were directly involved are still trying to recover from the losses caused by the Persian Gulf War. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. The name Iran derives from the word “Asyran,” and during the first half of the first millennium, the Iranian-speaking people moved gradually into the area of the Zagros Mountains, the largest groups known as the Medes and Persians. The Persian Gulf War began when Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. It was also believed that Iraq had developed chemical weapons, and thus, could be a threat to the entire world. Chronic fatigue, moodiness, depression, sleeping problems, nausea, short-term memory loss, joint pains, etc., were some of the symptoms of the “Gulf War illness”, which according to research, was observed in approximately 2,63,000 soldiers. This would all change after the Persian Wars. The pollution caused due to this barbarous act has left a huge impact on the environment and weather of the entire planet. As a result of the allied Greek success, a large contingent of the Persian fleet was destroyed and all Persian garrisons were expelled from Europe, marking an end of Persia’s advance westward into the continent. Persian War: In 490 BC a Persian armada led an invasion force onto Greek soil north of Athens. It could not compare with Sparta in power, prestige, or even in art. The Effects of the Persian Gulf War What Is Gulf War Syndrome? The Persians condemned the Greeks as invaidng terroists, and wanted to conquer Greece more than ever. The Persian Gulf War was a swift victory with a low casualty rate, which is why Marine Corps veteran Rob Relford II believes it has essentially become a forgotten conflict. Athens was one of the only Greek cities among that had importance. The seeds for the wars was planted in 547 BCE when the Persian emperor, Cyrus the Great, conquered Greek Ionia. Warned that Greeks were coming. The Persian War was fought between the Persian Empire and Greece. Their strategy was largely successful, and there was no open conflict between the Greeks and Persia until 396 BCE, when the Spartan king Agesilaus briefly invaded Asia Minor. Iran-Iraq War (1980–88), prolonged military conflict between Iran and Iraq. In 1991, after weeks of air strikes, US ground forces entered Iraq and Kuwait and eliminated Iraqi presence in 60 hours. During the rebellion, one of the Persian capital cities, Sardis, was burned. Persian Gulf War Effects The Middle East Children’s Alliance and the Bay Area Pledge of Resistance held a forum to celebrate resistance to the Persian Gulf War. 1 Answers. The effects of Persian Gulf War caused several pains to people. Thasos, another League member, also defected when, in 465 BCE, Athens founded the colony of Amphipolis on the Strymon River, which threatened Thasos’ interests in the mines of Mt Pangaion. Saddam Hussein, leader of … 1 Answers. In August 1990, while Iraq was preoccupied with its invasion of Kuwait (see Persian Gulf War), Iraq and Iran restored diplomatic relations, and Iraq agreed to Iranian terms for the settlement of the war: the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from occupied Iranian territory, division of sovereignty over the Shaṭṭ al-ʿArab waterway, and a prisoner-of-war exchange. The two powers struggled to agree on their respective spheres of influence, absent Persia's influence. The only success that belonged to Athens was its Navel. Causes and Effects of the Persian Gulf War The Persian Gulf War, often referred to as Operation Desert Storm, was perhaps one of the most successful war campaigns in the history of warfare. Answers (1) Jayvion 24 July, 18:30. During the year 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait, the official reason that was given was that Kuwait was overproducing oil purposely so that Iraq would be unable to hold its ground economically. The Best History Museums to Virtually Tour During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Virtual Reality Experiences That Let You See History Up Close, The Most Accurate Movies Based on History Worth Seeing, Subaru History: How the Japanese Manufacturer Become World-Famous, Porsche History: From Humble Beginnings to High-Powered Luxury, How to Become a History Teacher: A Brief Guide to the Responsibilities and Requirements, Houston History: From Independence to the Modern Day. Athens, and other Greek cities, sent aid, but were quickly forced to back down after defeat in 494 BCE. Explanation: The Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and the Greek cities that began in 490 BC and extended until the year 478 BC. Additionally, Athens and its ambitions caused increasing instability in Greece. In fact, shortly after the League’s inception, Athens began to use the League’s navy for its own purposes, which frequently led it into conflict with other, less powerful League members. Persia was no longer a threat to anyone. The effects. The Persian war has left a long standing effect on many nations especially the US. Subsequently, the Persians suffered many defeats at the hands of the Greeks, led by the Athenians. In early 1991, the United States and many other countries felt that Saudi Arabia would be Iraq’s next target. After a three-year long siege, Thasos was recaptured and forced back into the Delian League, though it also lost its defensive walls and fleet, its mines were turned over to Athens, and the city-state was forced to pay yearly tribute and fines. Asked By adminstaff @ 04/07/2019 06:28 AM. A new cold war between Saudi Arabia and Iran came to life, as the two powers began to vie for power and influence in the region, in process exacerbating further the Sunni-Shiite tension. Athens and Sparta began working together. History. Gulf War Syndrome and PDST The Persian Gulf War Gulf War Syndrome and Agent Orange Works Cited French, Laurence A., and Lidija Nikolić-Novaković. The Spartans, although they had taken part in the war, withdrew from the Delian League early on, believing that the war’s initial p… Effects-based operations (EBO) is a United States military concept that emerged during the Persian Gulf War for the planning and conduct of operations combining military and non-military methods to achieve a particular effect. The actions of the Iraqi forces has had a destructive effect on the soil of the Persian Gulf region. They went through physical and emotional distress for a number of years. Athens came to the Ionians aid. However, due to the rising oil prices and growth of the oil industry post the Persian Gulf War, Kuwait was able to make up for many of its economic losses. The catalyst for the first Persian war stemmed from a revolt by Greek Ionians. The foremost being that Iraq was under huge economic debt due to the long Iran-Iraq War, which lasted from 1980 to 1988. The war veterans who participated in this war show several signs of distress. The Persian Empire adopted a divide-and-rule strategy in relation to the Greek city-states in the wake of the Persian Wars, stoking already simmering conflicts, including the rivalry between Athens and Sparta, to protect the Persian Empire against further Greek attacks. Ekkleisa. Persian War: In 490 BC a Persian armada led an invasion force onto Greek soil north of Athens. Once Sparta withdrew from the Delian League after the Persian Wars, it reformed the Peloponnesian League, which had originally been formed in the 6th century and provided the blueprint for what was now the Delian League. This set the stage for Sparta’s eventual withdrawal from the Delian League. When we talk of the Persian Gulf War, Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, followed by the United States’ elimination of the Iraqi presence in Kuwait ― both are included in it. The goal of this spill was to impede US troops from attempting beach landings, but in the end the spill simply resulted in over 240 million gallons of crude oil being dumped into the Persian Gulf. They went through physical and emotional distress for a number of years. Demosthenes. Before this, the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, centered in what is … In the aftermath of the Persian Wars, the Greeks were unable to maintain their unity. There was also controversy with Iraq even before the invasion of Kuwait. This seems like a good time to assess the effects of the Persian Gulf war on the American economy. This war, just like any other war, had huge repercussions on the environment, economies of the countries involved as well as on the people, both commoners as well as war veterans. Next in king Darius’ sights were Athens and the rest of Greece. Sparta became the leader of the Greek city-states. Click on the button below to read a quick summary about the Persian War. The Persian Wars Eric D. Blanco Persia, known as Iran, was the largest empire the world had ever seen by the 5th century B.C.E. It was also called ‘Operation Desert Shield’ from August 2, 1990 – January 17, 1991, and ‘Operation Desert Storm’ from January 17, 1991 ― February 28, 1991, which was the combat phase. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. Oil leak from fire wells mixed with gravel resulted in a new layer on the surface of the desert called "tarcrete" with depth of nine feet. The major economic impact of the Gulf War was perhaps on cleaning up the oil slicks, which cost a whopping $700 million to clean up. The Persian Gulf War was a swift victory with a low casualty rate, which is why Marine Corps veteran Rob Relford II believes it has essentially become a forgotten conflict. What was important about Charles Martel's victory at the Battle of Tours . The Spartans, although they had taken part in the war, withdrew from the Delian League early on, believing that the war’s initial purpose had been met with the liberation of mainland Greece and the Greek cities of Asia Minor. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Due to the accumulation of solid wastes, groundwater contamination took place on a large scale. The Persian Gulf War, often referred to as Operation Desert Storm, was perhaps one of the most successful war campaigns in the history of warfare. "Battle of Marathon" This essay talks about the great Battle of Marathon during the Persian Wars in ancient Greece 490 BCE... war between the Greek city-states and The Persian Empire. The scenario was no different in the year 1990. It was later defeated and forced to tear down its defensive city walls, surrender its fleet, and lost voting privileges in the League. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Click Here. Following Sparta’s departure from the Delian League, Athens was able to use the resources of the League to its own ends, which led it into conflict with less powerful members of the League. Effects of the Persian Gulf War on veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. What was the effect of the persian wars? Many Greek city-states had been alienated from Sparta following the violent actions of Spartan leader Pausanias during the siege of Byzantium. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. The Delian League was the basis for the Athenian Empire, shown here on the brink of the Peloponnesian War (c. 431 BCE). This disagreement led to friction and eventually outright war. Click Here. Effects of Persian Wars Athens emerged as most powerful and prosperous city-state in Greece Athens organized the Delian League = alliances with other city-states Athens used its influence over other city-states to build an Athenian Empire! The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. The Gulf War, also called the Persian Gulf War, began on August 2, 1990 when Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait, and ended on February 28, 1991. This was a unique war in American history in terms of its effect … https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/, Understand the effect the Persian Wars had on the balance of power throughout the classical world. Beginning in 449 BCE, the Persians attempted to aggravate the growing tensions between Athens and Sparta, and would even bribe politicians to achieve these aims. Similarly, both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia suffered some infrastructural losses, running into billions of dollars. The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The wars with the Persians had a great effect on ancient Greeks. Saudi Arabia, who had a vested interest in the war, provided the second largest army, followed by the UK and France. During the winter of 379/378 BCE, a group of Theban exiles snuck into Thebes and succeeded in liberating it, despite resistance from a 1,500-strong Spartan garrison. 502 BCE, Naxos: An unsuccessful attack by the Persians on the large island of Naxos, midway between Crete and the current Greek mainland, paved the way to revolts by Ionian settlements occupied by the Persians in Asia Minor. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Persia. 2 pages, 703 words. This only made Persia more hostile toward Greece. The veterans were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs mental health clinic and met the DSM-III-R criteria for PTSD. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! The effects. The Spartan withdrawal from the League had the effect, however, of allowing Athens to establish unchallenged naval and commercial power, unrivaled throughout the Hellenic world. There was a fear that if Iraq invaded both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, the world’s oil supply would entirely be in Iraqi hands. To pay off the debt, it depended largely on the revenues gained from the export of crude oil. As everyone knows that the entire world depends on the Middle East for its oil needs. The war marked the end of the era of the Russo-Persian Wars, with Russia now being the unquestioned dominant power in the Caucasus. The goal of this spill was to impede US troops from attempting beach landings, but in the end the spill simply resulted in over 240 million gallons of crude oil being dumped into the Persian Gulf. There were two main reasons why Iraq invaded Kuwait. They suffered from depression, fatigue, and joint pains. In Greek art, there are many depictions of Greeks fighting Persians and Greek plays also feature the Persian enemy. What was the main effect of the Persian wars? After the second Persian invasion of Greece was halted, Sparta withdrew from the Delian League and reformed the Peloponnesian League with its original allies. Which statement best describes the outcome of the Persian wars? The losses for the US have been the maximum ever with an estimated financial expenditure of $150 million per day to support the soldiers, loss of lives at an estimated 2,300 and injuries to approximately 17,000 soldiers. 0. These cookies do not store any personal information. The Greeks had combined under Sparta and Athens' leadership to defeat the Persians, then the most powerful empire in Asia. There was the Greco-Persian War, fought between some of the city-states of Greece and the Persian Empire. The Persian Empire had gradually expanded to occupy Greek settlements in Asia Minor, and the success of Naxos at repelling … What effect did the Persian Wars have on the role Athens in the Greek world? This spill is one of the first times in military history where a natural resource and specifically pollution was used as a tactic of war. The United Nations had often asked to check their weapons supplies to prevent Iraq from gaining great military power. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. An alliance formed around Sparta in the Peloponnesus, from the 6th to 4th centuries BCE. Explanation: The Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and the Greek cities that began in … The atmosphere was the worst affected. One can find the direct outcome of the Persian war as the division of Greece into ‘Sparta and its supporters and the Athenian maritime empire’ (Spielvogel and Duiker 107). It is estimated that as many as 80 ships carrying oil and weapons were sunk into the Arabian gulf. Historical studies have unveiled the various effects of the Persian war, extending from Peloponnesian war to that of the dominance of Athens over the Spartans and to great wealth and great arrogance. An association of Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, the purpose of which was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victories at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. However, due to the rising oil prices and growth of the oil industry post the Persian Gulf War, Kuwait was able to make up for many of its economic losses. Timeline and Summary of the Persian Wars . The results of the battle had unforeseen effects on Athens and the future of Western Civilization. Athens emerged from the Persian Wars as the dominant city-state in Greece, and it used that power to establish an empire. For example, Naxos was the first member of the League to attempt to secede, in approximately 471 BCE. The losses for the US have been the maximum ever with an estimated financial expenditure of $150 million per day to support the soldiers, loss of lives at an estimated 2,300 and injuries to approximately 17,000 soldiers. 10 Years Later Background Timeline The Persians returned So, in order to prevent such a situation from arising, the United States finally attacked Iraqi forces and eliminated their presence from Kuwait in just a couple of days, by launching Operation Desert Storm. An effects-based approach to operations was first applied in modern times in the design and execution of the Desert Storm air campaign of 1991. The Persians condemned the Greeks as invaidng terroists, and wanted to conquer Greece more than ever. Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq were the main producers and exporters of oil to the world. Their strategy was to keep the Greeks distracted with in-fighting, so as to stop the tide of counterattacks reaching the Persian Empire. Though Operation Desert Storm was initiated and led by the U.S., it wasn’t the sole participant. Darius 3. It was instigated by Aristagoras, economic burdens, and a feeling of being treated unfairly by the Empire. The Persian Wars refers to the conflict between Greece and Persia in the 5th century BCE which involved two invasions by the latter in 490 and 480 BCE. Migratory birds were killed and many marine turtles lost their lives or developed lesions. What was the main effect of the Persian wars? A stalemate was reached. The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. Most found it easier to give money, so Athens was able to maintain a superior fleet and continue to extort the money even after peace was made with Persia. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. This spill is one of the first times in military history where a natural resource and specifically pollution was used as a tactic of war. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and Athenians had rebelled during the Corinthian War from 395-386 BCE, and the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and Athenians against the Spartans. During the war, approximately 11 million barrels of oil was released into the Arabian gulf. Asked By adminstaff @ 04/07/2019 … 10 Years Later Background Timeline The Persians returned Given below are the causes and effects of the Persian Gulf War. Nonetheless, relations between Athens and Sparta were soured by the situation. The Greek-Persian Wars of 490 and 480 BC may well be the most decisive wars in history; the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis and Platea are worth studying for this reason. Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. Despite their successes, however, the spoils of war caused greater inner conflict within the Hellenic world. Fighting was ended by a 1988 cease-fire, though the resumption of normal diplomatic relations and the withdrawal of troops did not take place until 1990. Submit your answer. Persia (Iran) was forced … Hellenic Civilization of the 5th Century BC, centred on Athens, probably has the strongest legacy of any one culture in the whole history of human civilization. Athens became the leader of the Greek city-states. There was huge air pollution caused by the fire and smoke, produced by explosives and weapons. According to legend, a messenger was sent from Marathon to Athens, a distance of about 25 miles (40 km), and announced the Persian defeat before dying of exhaustion. A series of rebellions occurred between Athens and the smaller city-states that were members of the League. What were the effects of the Persian Wars on Athens’ economy During the final phase of the war, Athens led the Delian league to which other cities contributed either ships of money. 140 city-states that wanted the Persians to stay gone, so they paid taxes to Athens to build up their navy to keep Persia away. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Causes and Effects of the Persian Gulf War; First Persian Gulf War: 1990-1991; Wyndham International Hotels: Fostering High-Touch with High Tech; High schools should be high tech; Persian Gulf War; persian gulf war; The Causes of the Persian Gulf War; The Persian Gulf War; Weapons of the Times; Bob marley :Light a Fire 04. of 05. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. As for the economic effects, Iraq was the major sufferer. Following their defeats at the hands of the Greeks, and plagued by internal rebellions that hindered their ability to fight foreign enemies, the Persians adopted a policy of divide-and-rule. The war had a huge impact on the common people too. The Persian War showed the superiority of the hoplite phalanx over the Persian type of fighting. The Persian Wars began in 499 BCE, when Greeks in the Persian-controlled territory rose in the Ionian Revolt. The Athenian Acropolis was destroyed by the Persians, but the Athenian response was to build the beautiful buildings whose ruins we can still see today. The Gulf War had begun with the unanticipated resilience and aggression of Saddam Hussein, and its aftermath soon ran into another unexpected development—the yet again unanticipated resilience and aggression of Saddam Hussein. This was the spark that leads to the Persian Gulf War. Following the two Persian invasions of Greece, and during the Greek counterattacks that commenced after the Battles of Plataea and Mycale, Athens enrolled all island and some mainland city-states into an alliance, called the Delian League, the purpose of which was to pursue conflict with the Persian Empire, prepare for future invasions, and organize a means of dividing the spoils of war. King during Persian wars. Athens lost that war. The main effect of the Persian Wars was that Persia was no longer a threat to anyone, as it was defeated by Alexander the Great. This experience, he affirms, reveals it was a conflict that left its mark on many of those who served, including lingering health effects that have yet to be fully identified. The Spartans mostly retreated behind their borders when the direct danger was over, in 478 BC. Estimates of total casualties range from 1,000,000 to twice that number. Environment. The Battles of the Persian War: Effects of the Persian War. The Peloponnesian war began after the Persian Wars ended in 449 BCE. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Filed Under: Term Papers Tagged With: History. Nearly 2, 63,000 soldiers suffered from the same kind of illness. Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq, invaded Kuwait in 1990. Following the two Persian invasions of Greece, and during the Greek counterattacks that commenced after the Battles of Plataea and Mycale, Athens enrolled all island and some mainland city-states into an alliance, called the Delian League, the purpose of which was to pursue conflict with the Persian Empire, prepare for future invasions, and organize a means of dividing the spoils of war. Women were raped in the midst of the war and had to bear many atrocities. This is where the second reason behind the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait arose. A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The fighting was most intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece between 490 and 479. The Persian war has left a long standing effect on many nations especially the US. It is also called the "Gulf War Illness". It not only suffered losses in military equipment, but also its infrastructure as well, which may take years and billions of dollars to rebuild. This disturbed the entire ecosystem, destroying marine life to a large extent. Date Submitted: 01/28/2010 01:28 AM; Flesch-Kincaid Score: 66.9 ; Words: 788 ; Essay Grade: 4,50 /5 (2 Graders) Report this Essay; OPEN DOCUMENT. The political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. We've created informative articles that you can come back to again and again when you have questions or want to learn more! The Gulf War caused a lot of physical and emotional distress to war veterans. Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq, invaded Kuwait in 1990. It is also called the "Gulf War Illness". Alexander The Great's "mortal enemy" Delian League. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. After the Treaty of Gulistan that concluded the previous Russo-Persian War in 1813, peace reigned in the Caucasus for thirteen years. The fall of Iraq to Iran was a geopolitical disaster for the US-backed Sunni monarchies in the Persian Gulf. The Persian War. The Persian Gulf War, often referred to as Operation Desert Storm, was perhaps one of the most successful war campaigns in the history of warfare. This Historyplex article puts forth some information about the outcome and effects of the Persian Gulf War. This experience, he affirms, reveals it was a conflict that left its mark on many of those who served, including lingering health effects that have yet to be fully identified.