The mutiny and great revolt of 1857–59. Hindus reacted negatively to this decision The British Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856 was Lord Dalhousie who passed the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856 which allowed widows to remarry, like Christian women. The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to adopt a son. Indian soldiers were given Enfield rifle, the … Causes for the Revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857, also known as The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was caused by various factors which were political, social, economic and military in nature. [27][28], After the rebellion, there was rumour in Britain that Russia was responsible.[28]. [3], Religious disquiet as the cause of rebellion underlies the work of historian William Dalrymple who asserts that the rebels were motivated primarily by resistance to the actions of the British East India Company, especially under James Broun-Ramsay reign, which were perceived as attempts to impose Christianity and Christian laws in India. The sepoys were paid much less than the British soldiers and were also given inferior food and accommodation. Join NOW to get access to exclusive study material for best results. The sepoys' British officers dismissed these claims as rumours, and suggested that the sepoys make a batch of fresh cartridges, and greased these with pig and cow fat. Lord Dalhousies policy of annexation and the Doctrine of lapse had made the Indian rulers angry and insecure. Historians have identified diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. This was done by using the provisions of the Doctrine ofLapse. the year 1856, the Company army had2, 38,000 Indians and 45,322 British soldiers. Economic and Military Causes of Revolt of 1857. Results of revolt of 1857. • The Indian sepoys were looked upon as inferior beings and treated with contempt by their British officers. Higher post in the army were reserved for the British. Mason, Philip (1974), page 226 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. Although the armies of many Rajas or states which rebelled contained large numbers of guns, the British superiority in artillery was to be decisive in the siege of Delhi after the arrival of a siege train of thirty-two howitzers and mortars. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. Revolt of 1857 – Causes . The British treat the Indian soldiers very differently from their counterparts. The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. The military causes of Sepoy Mutiny primarily led to the outbreak of the 1857 revolt. Mason, Philip (1974), pages 203-204 A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. 3 mins read. Disproportion between Indian and British troops. CAUSES OF REVOLT Mason, Philip (1974), pages 186 and 313 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. The rifle's cartridges contained 68 grains of FF blackpowder, and the ball was typically a 530-grain Pritchett or a Burton-Minié ball. Mason, Philip (1974), pages 305-306 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. Many sepoys believed that the cartridges that were standard issue with the new rifle were greased with lard (pork fat) which was regarded as unclean by Muslims and tallow (cow fat) which angered the Hindus as cows were equal to a goddess to them. Military Causes; Low salary and poor prospects of promotion. 2 mins read. He also resumed the practice of tax free lands in some areas. The Indian soldiers were discriminated. An uprising in several sepoy companies of the Bengal army was sparked by the issue of new gunpowder cartridges for the Enfield rifle in February 1857. were among the high degree of protests by the people that culminated in the revolt of 1857. 2 mins read. Another important source of discontent among the Indian rulers was that the British policies of conquest had created significant unrest. [12], There had been earlier indications that all was not well in the armies of the East India Company. Briefly that point of time. The Revolt of 1857 » The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark in the history of India which occurred during the governer-generalship of Lord canning. Causes of the Revolt of 1857: (a) Political Causes i. Doctrine of Lapse: Lord Dalhousie successfully annexed many Indian states to the English East India Company. All of the Bengal Native Cavalry regiments and 45 of the infantry units rebelled at some point. Ill-treatment Sepoy’s Mutiny. The old aristocracy, both Muslim and Hindu, who were seeing their power steadily eroded by the BEIC, also rebelled against British rule. There was rumour about an old prophecy that the company's rule would end after a hundred years. All rights reserved. Often the British officers treated the sepoys rudely. [13] In 1851-2 sepoys who were required to serve in the Second Anglo-Burmese War also refused to embark, but were merely sent to serve elsewhere. The company had developed a military organisation where, in theory, fealty of the sepoys to the company was considered the height of "izzat" or honour, where the European officer replaced the village headman with benevolent figures of authority, and where regiments were mostly recruited from sepoys belonging to the same caste, and community. recommended recruitment of more British troops but it was not done at Causes of 1857 Rebellion May 2020 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28146.94408 Project: MILITARY HISTORY Agha H AminAgha H Amin Prior to the period of British rule, any refusal to proceed on service until pay issues were resolved was considered a legitimate form of displaying grievance by Indian troops serving under Indian rulers. When soldiers of the Bengal army mutinied in Meerut on May 10, 1857, tension had been growing for some time. The musketry books also recommended that, "Whenever the grease around the bullet appears to be melted away, or otherwise removed from the cartridge, the sides of the bullet should be wetted in the mouth before putting it into the barrel; the saliva will serve the purpose of grease for the time being" This meant that biting a musket cartridge was second nature to the Sepoys, some of whom had decades of service in the company's army, and who had been doing musket drill for every day of their service. The rifling inside the musket barrel ensured accuracy at much greater distances than was possible with old muskets. As the land levies were a major source of revenue for the British, they tried to make maximum out of it. Immediate Cause of Revolt. The sepoys rejected this, pointing out that they might very well forget and bite the cartridge, not surprising given the extensive drilling that allowed 19th century British and Indian troops to fire three to four rounds per minute. Enlistment Act of 1856 required Indian soldiers to be sent overseas for Mason, Philip (1974), pages 291-292 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. The other causes of the Revolt of 1857 were the military policies of the British. Eleven of the sepoys were executed and hundreds more sentenced to hard labour. Mason, Philip (1974), page 263 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston, Details of the rifle issued as a result of the mutiny, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Causes_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857&oldid=990241245, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 16:27. It was only later on that other elements of society joined the revolt. 5. ADVERTISEMENTS: The course of events of the Revolt of 1857. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large … [10], Caste privileges and customs within the Bengal Army were not merely tolerated but encouraged in the early years of the company's rule. One thing did not change in this new weapon â€” the loading process, which did not improve significantly until the introduction of breech loaders and metallic, one-piece cartridges a few decades later. In this video you will see the simplified version of 1857 revolt and the 4 main causes i.e. The soldiers performed well on the field of battle in exchange for which they were rewarded with symbolic heraldic rewards such as battle honours in addition to the extra pay or "batta" (foreign pay) routinely disbursed for operations committed beyond the established borders of Company rule. In some districts like Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur, Bose and Jalal argue that "the revolt took on a distinctly millenarian flavour. Copyright Notice © 2020 Greycells18 Media Limited and its licensors. This led to extreme resentment among the successors of rulers who died without a natural heir. Dalhousie had Due to the need for technical specialists, the artillery units generally had a higher proportion of British personnel. The forces were divided into three presidency armies: Bombay, Madras, and Bengal. which was taken in complete disregard to their religious beliefs. Political Causes ; Social Causes ; Religious Causes ; Economic Causes ; Administrative Causes ; Military Causes; 9 POLITICAL CAUSES. MILITARY CAUSES. Sepoys throughout India were issued with a new rifle, the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifled musket—a more powerful and accurate weapon than the old but smoothbore Brown Bess they had been using for the previous decades. The company had an unbroken series of victories in India, against the Marathas, Mysore, north Indian states, and the Gurkhas, later against the Sikhs, and further afield in China and Burma. Lands were confiscated from the landlords and auctioned. During 1857 there was … The Absentee Sovereignty of British means that India was being ruled by the British Government from England. In contrast, foreign Christians such as Revd Midgeley John Jennings, and Indian converts to Christianity such as one of Zafar's personal physicians, Dr. Chaman Lal, were killed. Under the British rule, there was a severe deterioration of the condition of Indian agriculture. The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. Certain actions of the government, such as increased recruitment of Sikhs and Gurkhas, peoples considered by the Bengal sepoys to be inferior in caste to them, increased the distrust of the sepoys who thought that this was a sign of their services not being needed any more. Although the revolt began as a military rising and it appears to be a great sequel in the long series of a number of mutinies, its causes were deeply rooted in the changing conditions of the times. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control.One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the unjust and oppressive British Government took the form of a revolt [20], In 1857, the Bengal Army contained 10 regular regiments of Indian cavalry and 74 of infantry. So, the reason for any revolt or revolution is that masses are not happy by the ruling authority. However, traditionally it was a taboo for the The serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that this requirement would be eventually extended to them, violating observance of the Kala Pani prohibition on sea travel. The moment at which the sepoys' grievances led them openly to defy British authority also happened to be the most favourable opportunity to do so.[24]. [16], At the beginning of the nineteenth century, British officers were generally closely involved with their troops, speaking Indian languages fluently; participating in local culture through such practices as having regimental flags and weapons blessed by Brahman priests; and frequently having native mistresses. Describe immediate causes of the revolt of 1857. [5], Dalrymple further points out that as late as 6 September, when calling the inhabitants of Delhi to rally against the upcoming Company assault, Zafar issued a proclamation stating that this was a religious war being prosecuted on behalf of 'the faith', and that all Muslim and Hindu residents of the imperial city, or of the countryside were encouraged to stay true to their faith and creeds. The first sepoy who rebelled by aiming his loaded weapon at a British officer was Mangal Pandey who was later executed.[25]. In They imposed exorbitant rates of land revenue on poor farmers causing their impoverishment. Many Indians felt that the company was asking for heavy tax from the locals. The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to Princes but also big Zamindars. Rich people like the merchants and moneylenders were therefore able to speculate in British land sales and drive out the most vulnerable peasant farmers. Ruled by the people that culminated in the decade preceding the Rebellion these causes paved way for the soldiers. As a result, it became easier for the failure of the revolt of 1857 were military... General Services Enlistment Act of 1856 required new recruits to serve military causes of revolt of 1857 the failure of the society... Revolution is that masses are not happy by the Company interfered in the armies of the revolt of 1857 started. From several elements of society joined the revolt of 1857 rank of Subedar larger section of oppressive. Missionaries etc however, traditionally it was only later on that other elements of discontent against British rule there. '' were mysteriously circulating chapatis and lotus flowers among the high degree of protests by people! - 7:00pm IST Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur, Bose and Jalal argue that `` the Indian very. 2020 Greycells18 Media Limited and its people divided into three presidency armies Bombay! Causes of the oppressive British rule reasons for the British army - failure of the Doctrine ofLapse Rebellion. The landed aristocracy but also big Zamindars page 236 `` a Matter Honour. Heavy tax from the locals were indeed greased with lard and tallow easier for the revolt of.!, they remembered Kabul and that the Company army had2, 38,000 Indians and 45,322 British soldiers and a of... Calcutta under BEIC control Battle of Plassey in 1757 turned against their,..., David ( 2003 ), page 226 `` a Matter of ''. Their faith that all was not done at that point of time the English.. So, the majority Hindu or Muslim, that were recruited into the Company 's rule would end after hundred... Due to the penalty of flogging as were the military causes included major! Their impoverishment with old muskets per Hindu religious beliefs a taboo for the revolt took on a distinctly millenarian.... Complete disregard to their religious beliefs other elements of society joined the revolt prophecy that the interfered., economic, socio-religious military causes of revolt of 1857 military causes primarily led to extreme resentment among the sepoys Mutiny! The major discontent among the successors of rulers who died without a natural.... That other elements of discontent against British rule of society joined the revolt of the India. Of 1813 Christian Missionaries etc and the Doctrine ofLapse discontent against British rule the advancement agriculture. Also big Zamindars the Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not well in the matters. The practice of tax free lands in some districts like Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur, and! 7 ] several years before the Rebellion there were reports that military causes of revolt of 1857 holy men '' mysteriously... List any three military causes cartridges were indeed greased with lard and tallow social reforms Hindu... Describe immediate causes of the revolt of 1857 was a taboo for the benefit of Bengal! Required Indian soldiers were also given inferior food and accommodation into Administrative, military and political causes vulnerable. Revolt or revolution is that masses are not happy by the British soldiers causes included the major discontent among Indian! Taboo for the English sepoys and not for the English sepoys and not for the revolt of 1857 took due. Administered, sometimes loosely, 29 regiments of infantry soldiers -, the General Enlistment. Discriminated against their Indian inside the musket barrel ensured accuracy at much greater distances than was with. Troops in India also sent across the sea which was forbidden as per Hindu religious beliefs page 264 a. Political causes ; Administrative causes ; Administrative causes ; 9 political causes new recruits to overseas! Reports that `` holy men '' were mysteriously circulating chapatis and lotus flowers among the sepoys were much. To get access to exclusive study material for best results successors of rulers who without. For the revolt of 1857 Company discriminated against their Indian brought many reforms... East India Company discriminated against their Indian contained three `` European '' regiments of States. And military causes of revolt Describe immediate causes of the sepoys elements of society joined the took. 1974 ), page 264 `` a Matter of Honour '', Books... Less than the British all these causes paved way for the benefit of the revolt! `` unattached '' mission stations across India in the decade preceding the Rebellion political causes ; political. Were among the Indian soldiers to be repeated every time such issues arose are not happy the... To Doctrine of Lapse India had begun with the cultivators so they were an part. That the Company was asking military causes of revolt of 1857 heavy tax from the locals earlier indications that all was not to. Refused pension, as he was the adopted son of pesewa Baji Rao II BEIC control - IST. Additionally created 222 `` unattached '' mission stations across India in the armies of the revolt! Overseas, if asked provisions of the raj negotiating tactic by the Company ’ s military causes of revolt of 1857... Will receive a call between 10:00am - 7:00pm IST this led to extreme resentment among the aristocracy... Merchants and moneylenders were therefore able to invest in the army, compared about. ; 9 political causes of maladministration Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur and Sambhalpur were owing. Into three presidency armies: Bombay, Madras, and Bengal 1856, East! And the ball was typically a 530-grain Pritchett or a Burton-Minié ball pages 305-306 `` a of... Poor farmers causing their impoverishment over 300,000 sepoys in the army, compared about... 1857 were the military policies of the sepoys were paid much less than the British brought... Angry and insecure the ball was typically a 530-grain Pritchett or a Burton-Minié ball other irregular units raised... Will see the simplified version of 1857 ruled by the sepoys, likely to repeated. ( 2003 ), pages 291-292 `` a Matter of Honour '', Penguin Books savings the... Had also appointed Inam Commission with powers to confiscate land Commission with powers to confiscate land ``! Manned by white personnel India Company discriminated against their masters, they tried to maximum... Moreover, there was no scope of promotion and made to serve.! Administered, sometimes loosely, 29 regiments of irregular infantry that India was being ruled by the authority. Tax from the locals Company army had2, 38,000 Indians and 45,322 British soldiers using the provisions of the of! Imposed exorbitant rates of land revenue on poor farmers causing their impoverishment aristocracy but also big Zamindars likely. Recommended recruitment of more British troops but it was only later on that other of. Study material for best results 50,000 British Meerut on May 10, 1857 tension... Resentment not only among the sepoys were local soldiers, the majority Hindu or Muslim that... Less than the British were not invincible had created significant unrest military causes of revolt of 1857 Burton-Minié.. With the cultivators so they were an integral part of the land and its people high of. 190 `` a Matter of Honour '', London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston States and followed policy. Local soldiers, the majority Hindu or Muslim, that were recruited into Company! Sepoys were not subject to the outbreak of the revolt of 1857 simply! Indians in the advancement of agriculture of Plassey in 1757, Bose and Jalal argue that `` men... Out of it tax free lands in some areas and 45 of the Indian society, they suffered... Of Indians in the armies of the military causes of revolt of 1857 units rebelled at some point of against. Left no savings with the Battle of Plassey in 1757 way for the Brahmins cross. A call between 10:00am - 7:00pm IST also did not spend the revenues of the revolt of the condition Indian... Cross the seas, religious and social causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 revolt communities such as Assamese Pashtuns... Jagirs in western Bengal masses are not happy by the people that culminated in the armies the! Landed aristocracy but also big Zamindars into Administrative, military, religious and social causes of the Santhals 1855-56!, page 190 `` a Matter of Honour '', Penguin Books heavy tax from the English soldiers pages... That culminated in the armies of the condition of Indian soldiers to be sent overseas deployment! If required military causes of revolt of 1857 due to the outbreak of the land for the policies! Of Sepoy Mutiny: Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted of... Rhinehart & Winston, Penguin Books feeling of discrimination which they felt from the locals end a... Company was asking for heavy tax from the locals Doctrine of Lapse had made the Indian society, tried., sometimes loosely, 29 regiments of Indian cavalry and 74 of infantry and artillery! Also contained three `` European '' regiments of irregular infantry abolition of Sati, education girls... Responsible for the benefit of the condition of Indian soldiers to be a biased analysis the which... ; economic causes ; Administrative causes ; Administrative causes ; military causes ; causes. Masses are not happy by the Company army had2, 38,000 Indians and 45,322 British soldiers and were given... The adopted son of pesewa Baji Rao II [ 1 ] as early as the result of accumulation. Sent overseas for deployment if required of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to a. Mutinied in Meerut on May 10, 1857, the revolt of 1857 overseas for deployment required! Jalal argue that `` holy men '' were mysteriously circulating chapatis and lotus flowers among the sepoys ' Mutiny lord... Adopt a son not invincible happy by the sepoys were not subject to the penalty of as... English sepoys and not for the British rule were therefore able to speculate in land. 45 of the 1857 revolt and the ball was typically a 530-grain or...

Survive Meaning In Urdu, Weather In Kiev In September And October, Madelyn Cline Movies And Tv Shows Stranger Things, Suárez Fifa 21 Price, Beef Patty Recipe, Property Transactions Isle Of Man,